As not everyone could join us on our excursion on Friday afternoon, we repeated the exercise on Saturday morning, heading to a small tarn just a short walk from Windermere and Bowness. Despite its proximity to two of the busiest towns in the Lake District, there were very few other people around to disturb our peace whilst we collected samples. As at Kelly Hall and Long Moss Tarns, Dave had his plankton net out, but we also explored a boggy region at one end, finding more patches of Sphagnum but also extensive growths of Utricularia minor (Lesser Bladderwort), one of a small number of aquatic carnivorous plants. Dave was particularly pleased by this find as he associates this particular plant with rich hauls of desmids.
It was tempting to linger in the sunshine beside School Knott Tarn but the green tinge of the water that dripped out of the Sphagnum squeezings in particular was enough to lure us towards the Freshwater Biological Association’s laboratories in order to start examining our samples.
Utricularia minor (Lesser Bladderwort) from School Knott Tarn, near Windermere, September 2017. Several of the spherical bladders which trap small invertebrates are visible on the plant.
My selection of photographs below shows just a part of the diversity that we encountered during our microscopic examinations. I was using a borrowed set-up and the images are all from photographs of the desmids displayed on computer monitor, which is far from ideal. Some of the larger desmids – one large Closterium species in particular – were too large to fit onto the screen and have had to be omitted from this account. There were also a number of cells of Eremosphaera (see “More from Loughrigg Fell”) and some Cyanobacteria (Merismopedia was quite common) so this is a very partial description of our microscopical adventures in School Knott Tarn.
The first two desmids, Spirotaenia condensata and Cylindrocystis gracilis, belong to a group of desmids called “saccoderm desmids”. These are more closely related to filamentous green algae of the Zygnemetaceae that are old friends of this blog (see “Concentrating on Carbon, for example) and, in fact, we could think of these genera as being unicellular analogues of their filamentous cousins. Spirotaenia, with its helical chloroplast, for example, recalls Spirogyra whilst Cylindrocystis’ two star-shaped chloroplasts is reminiscent of Zygnema. Mesotaenium, which we did not see in this sample, has a plate-like chloroplast similar to that in Mougeotia.
The next two illustrations both show species of Micrasterias. Of these, M. compereana generated a vigorous discussion amongst our experts. This would have been described as M. fimbriata using the latest British floras but a paper has been published recently which uses molecular data to demonstrated the need to split the species. Finally, we have representatives of Euastrum and Haplotaenium, two genera that we also met at Dock Tarn (see “Damp days in search of desmids …”) although the species are different. Haplotaenium differs from Pleurotaenium in the number and form of the chloroplasts and also because it lacks a terminal vacuole.
Desmids from Sphagnum squeezings from School Knott Tarn, September 2017: a. Spirotaenia condensata; b. Cylindrocystis gracilis; c. Micrasterias compereana; d. Micrasterias crux-meltensis; e. Euastrum oblongum; f. Haplotaenium rectum. Scale bar: 25 micrometres (= 1/40th of a millimetre).
Four more desmids are illustrated on the lower plate. Of these, we have seen Netrium digitus in Dock Tarn and the illustration there is better than this one, showing the undulating nature of the chloroplast margins quite clearly. The desmid below this, Closterium closterioides caused some confusion at first. We usually associate Closterium with lunate (moon-shaped) cells (see “More from Loughrigg Fell”) but this species is straight, sending me towards the section on Netrium in my Flora. However, Netrium lacks terminal vacuoles whereas this specimen has prominent vacuoles at both ends. We also found a variety, C. closterioides var. intermedium, in the same sample.
The final desmid that I have illustrated is a filamentous form: Desmidium schwartzii. In contrast to Hyalotheca dissilens (see “Desmids from the Pirin mountains”) there is no obvious mucilaginous sheath around this specimen, but this may be an anomaly of this population or an artefact of the microscopy set-up. We are looking at the side view of a chain of cells but if we were to look at the end view of one cell it would be triangular in this particular species. The chloroplast fills most of the cell and has projections running into the corners of the cells. However, as the filaments of the cells are slightly twisted, these projections appear to shift in position from cell to cell, giving a helical appearance. I’ve tried to illustrate this with a schematic diagram.
More desmids from Sphagnum squeezings from School Knott Tarn, September 2017: g. Netrium digitus; h. Closterium closterioides var. closterioides; i. C. closterioides var. intermedium; j. Desmidium schwartzii. Scale bar: 25 micrometres (= 1/40th of a millimetre).
This short post gives some idea of the diversity in a single sample from a single Tarn. Dave handed all the samples we collected over to David Williamson on his way back south and we’ll get a fuller list of their diversity in due course. This one sample occupied me for the latter part of Saturday morning and all of the afternoon. On Sunday, I moved on to look at another sample and I’ll write about that in another post very soon.
A schematic view of a chain of Desmidium cells, showing the arrangement of the chloroplast seen in apical view (k.) and the implications of slight twisting of the filament on appearance (l.). Diagram adapted from John et al. (2011).
John, D.M., Whitton, B.A. & Brock, A.J. (2011). The Freshwater Algal Flora of the British Isles. 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Neustupa, J., Šťastný, J. & Škaloud, P. (2014). Splitting of Micrasterias fimbriata (Desmidiales, Viridiplantae) into two monophyletic species and description of Micrasterias compereana sp. nov. Plant Ecology and Evolution 147: 405-411.