As my last post used the conventions of figurative art to describe algal ecology, I thought I would stick to graphs – science’s very own school of abstract art – for this one. I spent some time in “Small details in the big picture” discussing the ecology of Platessa oblongella (including P. saxonica) but without saying very much about the types of streams where these species were found. So I am going to take a step away from the Ennerdale catchment in this post and, instead, collate environmental data a large number of sites to get a broader understanding of their habitat preferences. As these species are often associated with Odontidium mesodon (see “A tale of two diatoms …”), I will summarise the preferences of this species at the same time (but see Annex 1 for a graph of this species’ preferences for still versus standing water).
The first set of graphs show the response of these species to pH and alkalinity and establish both as species typical of circumneutral soft water. Platessa oblongella can be abundant in more acid conditions (i.e. to the left of the green vertical lines) but most of the records where it is abundant have pH values between 6.5 and 7.5. Note that P. oblongella can also be found in humic waters, where lower pH thresholds apply (see Annex 2).
Distribution of Odontidium mesodon and Platessa oblongella (including P. saxonica) to pH and alkalinity in UK streams. Vertical lines for pH indicate threshold values that should support high (blue), good (green), moderate (orange) and poor (red) ecological status classes. See Annex 2 for more explanation.
The second set of graphs shows how these species respond to inorganic nutrients. Both are most abundant when inorganic nutrients are present in low concentrations, though the trend is stronger for phosphorus than it is for nitrate-nitrogen. The graphs for Platessa oblongella, however, both have a few outliers. I have seen P. oblongella in a few situations where I did not expect it – I remember finding it in the Halebourne, a stream draining heathland around Aldershot and Bagshot in Surrey, where the water was well buffered (mean alkalinity: 61.3 mg L-1 CaCO3) and nutrient concentration were high (mean total oxidised nitrogen: 4.01 mg L-1; dissolved phosphorus: 0.25 mg L-1) and Carlos Wetzel and colleagues note some other anomalous records from the literature in their paper (cited in my earlier post), including a few from high conductivity and even brackish environments. So we should treat these plots as indicative of the ecological preferences rather than definitive.
Distribution of Odontidium mesodon and Platessa oblongella (including P. saxonica) to nitrate-N and dissolved phosphorus in UK streams. Vertical lines indicate threshold values that should support high (blue), good (green), moderate (orange) and poor (red) ecological status classes. See Annex 2 for more explanation.
The final pair of plots show how the relative abundance of these two species changes over the course of the year. These plots show the months when each taxon is abundant, by the standards of that taxon. Because Platessa oblongella tends to be very numerous in samples, the threshold for this taxon (the 90th percentile of all records) is higher than that for O. mesodon. This reveals a very clear pattern of O. mesodon thriving in Spring whilst P. oblongella is abundant throughout the year, but with a slight preference for summer and autumn. We need to reconcile these patterns with the observations in A tale of two diatoms that show that P. oblongella is associated with thinner biofilms than O. mesodon and try to work out whether season is driving the patterns or whether the seasonal patterns are the manifestation of other forces. My suspicion is that P. oblongella is a classic pioneer species but also has a low-growing prostrate habit which means that it should be resistant to heavy grazing, which may confer an advantage in the summer and autumn when grazers are most active. However, I may be getting ahead of myself, as we are in the process of analysing data on grazer-algae interactions in the River Ehen and Croasdale Beck that may throw more light on this. There are clearly more layers to this story yet to be revealed …
Distribution of Odontidium mesodon (i.) and Platessa oblongella (j., including P. saxonica). The solid lines represent relative sampling effort (i.e. the proportion of samples in the dataset collected in a particular month) and the vertical bars represent samples where the relative abundance of taxon in question exceeded the 90th percentile for that taxon (20% for P. oblongella/P. saxonica and 5% for O. mesodon).
The dataset used for these analyses is that used in:
Kelly, M.G., Juggins, S., Guthrie, R., Pritchard, S., Jamieson, B.J., Rippey, B, Hirst, H & Yallop, M.L. (2008). Assessment of ecological status in UK rivers using diatoms. Freshwater Biology 53: 403-422.
Annex 1: Odontidium mesodon’s preference for still or standing water
As I included a graph showing the preference of Platessa oblongella / P. saxonica for still or standing water in “A tale of two diatoms …”, I have included a similar graph for Odontidium mesodon here. I have not included any data from the streams that flow into Ennerdale Water’s north-west corner in this graph as this would give a distorted picture. To date, I have only seen a single valve of O. mesodon during analyses of 14 samples from these streams but I have not yet sampled these in spring which, as the graph above shows, is the time when O. mesodon is most abundant. Like Platessa oblongella, O. mesodon is predominately a species of running, rather than standing waters.
Differences in percentage of Odontidium mesodon in epilithic samples from Ennerdale Water and associated streams. Data collected between 2012 and 2018.
Annex 2: notes on species-environment plots
These are based on interrogation of a database of 6500 river samples collected as part of DARES project. Vertical lines show UK environmental standards for conditions necessary to support good ecological status: blue = high status; green = good status, orange = moderate status and red = poor status. Note that there are no environmental standards for alkalinity and the vertical lines show a rough split of the gradient into low alkalinity (“soft water”: < 10 mg L-1 CaCO3), low/moderate alkalinity (³ 10, < 75 mg L-1 CaCO3), moderate/high alkalinity (³ 75, < 150 mg L-1 CaCO3) and high alkalinity (“hard water”: ³ 150 mg L-1 CaCO3).
pH thresholds are for clear water (see UK TAG’s Acidification Environmental Standards. The corresponding thresholds for humic waters are lower (high/good: 5.1; good/moderate: 4.55; moderate/poor: 4.22; poor/bad: 4.03).
Phosphorus thresholds are based on UK TAG’s A Revised Approach to Setting WFD Phosphorus Standards. Current UK phosphorus standards are site specific, using altitude and alkalinity as predictors. This means that a range of thresholds applies, depending upon the geological preferences of the species in question. The plots here show the position of boundaries based on the average alkalinity and altitude measurements in the DARES database.
Note, too, that phosphorus analyses use the Environment Agency’s standard measure, which is unfiltered molybdate reactive phosphorus. This approximates to “soluble reactive phosphorus” or “phosphorus as orthophosphate” in most circumstances but the reagents will react with phosphorus attached to particles that would have been removed by membrane filtration.
Nitrate-nitrogen: There are, currently, no UK standards for nitrates in rivers. Values plotted here are derived in the same way as those for phosphorus (see “This is not a nitrate standard”)