Summertime blues …

My reflections on the effects of the heatwave on freshwater algae continued with the latest of my regular visits to the River Wear at Wolsingham.  A comparison of the picture above with that at the head of “Spring comes slowly up this way …” says it all: the sun was shining and the gravel berms that I usually use to enter the river were occupied by families with barbeques whilst their children splashed around in the water.   At times such as this, a grown man picking up stones and then vigorously brushing their tops with a toothbrush would have invited too many questions, so I slunk off 100 metres or so downstream and found a quieter spot to explore.

The biofilm in the main channel of the River Wear at Wolsingham, July 2018. 

The first thing I noticed was that the biofilm coating the submerged stones at the bottom of the river had a greenish tinge, rather than its usual chocolate brown appearance.  It also was more crusty and less slimy to the touch than I usually see in this river.  When I got a specimen under the microscope, I could see that the composition was completely different to that which I had observed in previous months.   Most samples from this location that I’ve looked at in the past have been dominated by diatoms, with occasional spring flourishes of filamentous green algae.  Today, however, the sample was dominated by small green algae – a group that I am not very confident at identifying.   My rough estimate is that these formed about three quarters of all the algae that I could see, with diatoms and cyanobacteria each accounting for about half of the remainder.   The most abundant greens were a tiny single-celled alga that I tentatively identified as Keratococcus bicaudatus, along with a species of Scenedesmus and Desmococcus communis.   There were also a number of cells of Monoraphidium arcuatum and some of Ankistrodesmus sp.

Two views of biofilms from the River Wear, Wolsingham in January 2018.   Left: from the main channel; right: from pools at the edge of the channel.

Green algae from the River Wear at Wolsingham, July 2018: a. Desmococcus communis; b. Monoraphidium arcuatum; c. Scenedesmus sp.; d. unidentified, possibly Keratococcus bicaudatus.  Scale bar: 10 micrometres (= 1/100th of a millimetre).

However, there were also pools at the side of the channel, away from the main current but not so cut off that they were isolated from the river itself.   These were dominated by dense, brown filamentous growths, very similar in appearance to the Melosira varians flocs I described in “Some like it hot …”.  The filaments, however, felt coarser to the touch and, in close-up, could be seen to be branched, even without recourse to a microscope.   Once I got these under the microscope, I could see that they were filaments of Cladophora glomerata, another green alga, but so smothered with epiphytic diatoms (mostly Cocconeis pediculus) that they appeared brown in colour.

This combination of Cladophora glomerata and Cocconeis pediculus in the backwaters were as much of a surprise as the green-algae-dominated biofilms in the main channel.   These are species usually associated with enriched rivers (see “Cladophora and friends”) and, whilst I have seen Cladophora in the upper Wear before, it is an unusual occurrence.   Just as for the prolific growths of Melosira varians described in “Some like it hot …” it is tempting to leap to the conclusion that this must be a sign that the river is nutrient-rich.  However, the same conditions will apply here as there: “nutrients” are not the only resource that can limit plant growth and a steady trickle of phosphorus combined with warm, sunny conditions is just as likely to lead to prolific growths as a more conventionally “polluted” river.

Cladophora filaments smothered by the diatom Cocconeis pediculus in a pool beside the River Wear at Wolsingham, July 2017.   The frame width of the upper image is about 1 cm; the scale bar on the lower images is 20 micrometres (= 1/50th of a millimetre).

Another way to think of these situations is that, just as even healthy people are occasionally ill, so healthy streams can go through short periods when, based on a quick examination of plants and animals present, they exhibit symptoms associated with polluted conditions or simply (as for the first sample I described) different to what we usually expect to find.   A pulse of pollution might have passed downstream or, as seems to be happening at the moment, an unusual set of conditions lad to different organisms thriving.   Just as the ability to fight off infection forms part of a doctor’s understanding of “health”, so I expect that the River Wear will, in a few weeks time, be back to its usual state.   Healthy ecosystems, just like healthy humans, show “resilience”.   The irony is that, in this case, the “symptoms” are most obvious at a time when we are enjoying a summer better than any we’ve had in recent years.


Loving the low flows …

It is a long time since we have had a heatwave in the UK that has lasted as long as the present one.  The last that compares was in 1995, when the A1 near my house was busy with tankers ferrying water from Kielder Water in Northumberland to the drought-afflicted areas of Yorkshire.   Three weeks in and gardeners are staring anxiously at the parched soil and quietly praying for rain whilst, at the same time, trying to make the most of the rare luxury of warm weather.   Rivers, too, are showing the effects of the weather.  In some parts of the country, rivers are drying out and fish stocks are threatened.   That is not the case here in the north-east, but the River Wear is showing some signs.

The medieval Prebends Bridge is one of the most picturesque sights in Durham but, at the moment, the water underneath the bridge – and, indeed, throughout Durham – is bright green with flocs of algae.   Closer inspection showed this to be fronds of Ulva flexuosa: the cells are arranged to form a hollow tube, like a sausage skin, which traps the oxygen released by photosynthesis to give the alga an integral buoyancy aid.  You can see how this clearly in the image below. The common name for this alga is “gutweed”, which offers us another metaphor for the appearance of these semi-inflated sacs of cells.   This broad thallus is loosely attached to the river bed (see lower picture below) but is easily dislodged, after which the thalli drift downstream until they become entangled in other water plants or submerged branches.  In the current state, Durham’s rowers are grumbling that it is becoming entangled with their oars

We often see a little Ulva flexuosa in the Wear during the summer, but rarely as much as this.  It is a species that thrives under still, warm conditions and which also benefits from the weirs which regulate the flow of the river in Durham.   It is an alga that we tend to associate with nutrient-rich conditions, but this might be because the type of slow-flowing lowland rivers where it can become common are more likely to be nutrient rich than faster-flowing upland rivers where it is rarely found.   The current weather, in other words, creates the “perfect storm” for Ulva flexuosa.   Ironically, a storm – perfect or otherwise – will probably alter the flow regime in the Wear enough to flush it all downstream.  Another curiosity is that, despite being favoured by low flows and the near-standing water behind the weirs in Durham, Ulva flexuosa seems to be more likely to form mass growths in rivers rather than in lakes or ponds.

Ulva flexuosa in the River Wear, July 2018: the upper picture shows free-floating thalli, inflated by oxygen released by photosynthesis; the lower photograph shows thalli still attached to the river bed.

In my experience, the genus Ulva tends to be absent from nutrient-poor conditions which is subtly different to saying that it thrives when nutrients are abundant.  There are other factors – warm, stable conditions in particular that determine the success of the genus in any particular place.  The Wear has seen a significant decrease in nutrients in recent years yet here we are, in 2018, with a river full of Ulva.   I could say that, despite this reduction in nutrients, the Wear is still, relatively speaking, nutrient-rich, but the coincidence with an altered flow regime, a prolonged spell of warm weather and low flow conditions seems too great to ignore.   Ulva flexuosa is, in other words, a fine example of an alga where we need to think of a multifactorial “habitat template” rather than just in terms of single stressors.   We also need to think in terms of probabilities of mass proliferations increasing or decreasing as habitat factors vary, rather than a simple likelihood of finding Ulva at any particular location.

That means we need to look at climate change forecasts and, if there is a likelihood of more long, warm, dry summers, then we should expect more frequent blooms of Ulva in our rivers.  We may tinker with nutrient concentrations and even try to restore more natural flows (though Durham’s rowers will have a view if that was tried here!) but, ultimately, Ulva flexuosa is a species that enjoys a heatwave as much as any other resident of these islands.

A high magnification (x 400) view of the thallus of Ulva flexuosa from the River Wear.   Scale bar: 20 micrometres (= 1/50th of a millimetre).


Rybak, A.S. & Gąbka, M. (2017).  The influence of abiotic factors on the bloom-forming alga Ulva flexuosa (Ulvaceae, Chlorophyta): possibilities for the control of the green tides in freshwater ecosystems.  Journal of Applied Phycology

A question of scale …

It has taken some time to convert the observations from my last visit to the River Wear (see “Spring comes slowly up this way …”) into a picture.  Then, if you remember, the river was balanced between its “spring” and “summer” guises, the cool, wet weather that we experienced in March seems to have held the plants and animals that I usually see at this time of year back.   The result was a patchiness that was easy to see with the naked eye, but harder to visualise at the microscopic level.

First there were quite a few diatoms, Achnanthidium minutissimum in particular, – that suggested a thin biofilm subject to grazing by invertebrates (and I could see some chironomid larvae moving amongst the biofilm as I was sampling).   However, there were also diatoms such as Ulnaria ulna and Gomphonema olivaceum that suggested a thicker biofilm.    And finally there were filaments of the green alga Stigeoclonium tenue, mostly in discrete patches.   I never see healthy filaments of Stigeoclonium tenue smothered in epiphytes, which I have always assumed to be due to the copious mucilage that surrounds the plants.  However, I wondered if, nonetheless, Stigeoclonium contributes to overall habitat patchiness for the diatoms, as they subtly alter the way that water flows across the stone, reducing drag and shear stress in a way that favours Gomphonema and Ulnaria.   This is just speculation, of course…

That brings me back to a familiar theme: the problems of understanding the structure of the microscopic world (see “The River Wear in January” and “Baffled by the benthos (1)”) and, tangentially, to a paper on organisms’ responses to climate that was quoted at a scientific meeting I attended recently.   In this, Kristen Potter and colleagues demonstrated that there was typically a 1000 to 10,000 fold difference between the scale at which the distribution of organisms is studied and the size of those organisms.   That might be enough to draw out some coarse-scale patterns in distribution of species, but organisms actually live in microclimates, which may be patchy and which can often be quite different to the prevailing macroclimate (the difference between being exposed to full sun in open grassland and in the shade of a forest being a good example).   They suggested that the ideal spatial resolution is between one and ten times the organism’s length/height.

I see no reason why the same challenge should not also apply to the pressures faced by organisms in rivers where, again, we can get a certain amount of useful information from a coarse analysis of distribution in relation to (let’s say) average nutrient concentrations in a reach, but cannot really understand the reasons behind the spatial and temporal variation that we see in our data.  This mismatch between the scale at which organisms respond and the scale at which we study them is, I suspect, an even bigger problem for those of us who study the microscopic world.

A second illustration came at the same meeting in a talk by Honor Prentice from the University of Lund in Sweden.  She was dabbling in molecular biology years before this became a fashionable pastime for ecologists and has, over her career, developed some fascinating insights into how the structure of both plant communities and populations of individuals vary over short distances.  Her work has focussed on the island of Öland in Sweden which has the largest extent of alvar (limestone pavement) in Europe.   The system of grikes (the slabs) and clints (the fissures which separate the grikes) create quite different microclimates – the cool, moist conditions in the latter can create bog-like conditions with much lower pH than the limestone clints.   These differences influence not just the composition of the community but the genetic structure of species within these communities too.  I left thinking that if she could detect such differences at a scale barely more than one order of magnitude greater than the organisms, then how much more variation am I missing, with perhaps a five order of magnitude difference between organism size and sampling scale?

Based on these two studies, we would need to sample biofilms at a scale of about 1 mm2 in order to get a meaningful understanding of habitat patchiness in stream benthic algae.  That might just be possible with Next Generation Sequencing technologies, though I am not sure how one would go about collecting environmental data at that scale needed to explain what is going on.  Meanwhile, I am left with the coarse approach to sampling that is inevitable when you are five orders of magnitude bigger than the organism that you want to collect, and my imagination.


Potter, K.A., Woods, H.A. & Pincebourde, S. (2013).  Microclimatic changes in global change biology.   Global Change Biology 19: 2932-2939.

Prentice, H.C., Lonn, M., Lefkovitch, L.P. & Runyeon, H. (1995).   Associations between allele frequencies in Festuca ovina and habitat variation in the alvar grasslands on the Baltic island of OlandJournal of Ecology 83: 391-402.


Return to Cyprus …

A few weeks ago I described some of the algae that I found during a visit to the Avgás Gorge (pictured above) in Cyprus, including a chain-forming Ulnaria (see “Cypriot delights …”).   I’ve now had a chance to prepare cleaned valves from this material so we can take a closer look.

The chain-forming habit had already led David Williams to suggest Ulnaria ungeriana (Grunow) Compère 2001 and more detailed observations have confirmed this.  This is a species that was actually first described from Cyprus (actually Northern Cyprus) and it was also recorded quite extensively during a survey of the island’s diatoms a few years ago.   Unfortunately, some of the key diagnostic characters – such as small marginal spines and striae composed of single rows of pores – cannot be seen with light microscopy but the former, at least, can be inferred from the chain-forming habit.   Note, too, how the long chains that dominated the population in the live state, fell apart when the sample was cleaned with oxidising agents and I did not see more than three cells joined together in the new preparation.

Ulnaria ungeriana from Avgás Gorge, Cyprus, April 2018.   Scale bar: 10 micrometres (= 1/100th of a millimetre).

The Ulnaria ungeriana cells are mostly about 100 – 150 mm long and 7-8 mm wide, with a striae density of 9-10 / 10 mm.   They have parallel sides, narrowing to rostrate to slightly sub-capitate ends, and central areas that reach to the valve margin and which are slightly longer than they are broad.   Unfortunately, most of these characteristics overlap with those of Ulnaria ulna in all but most recent identification guides.   This species was first described by Nitzsch in 1817; it would have been one of the more conspicuous diatoms visible with the relatively basic equipment available at the time, with a magnification of about 150x.  His drawings are of live cells, mostly in girdle view, which means that many of the details which modern diatomists use to discriminate species are not apparent.   Moreover, the material on which these drawings are based is no longer available so we cannot go back to this in order to ascertain the characteristics of the original Ulnaria ulna and, to increase the confusion yet further, it is possible that Nitzsch has illustrated more than one species (see the reference by Lange-Bertalot and Ulrich below).

It would be, in short, very easy to look at a population of Ulnaria ungeriana in the cleaned state and match it to the descriptions of Ulnaria ulna which, under various names, have appeared in the identification literature over the past 100 years or so.   You might just detect the small marginal spines if you have a good microscope and know what you are looking for.  In the live state, however, the ribbon-like colonies are a very distinctive feature yet these do not survive preparation, putting anyone who only encounters this species on a permanent slide at a distinct disadvantage.   It is a good example of how examination of live material can add valuable information to an understanding of a diatom species yet, inevitably, many diatomists make little time for examination of their samples before dropping them into their bubbling cauldrons of oxidising agents.

High magnification views of the ends and central portions of Ulnaria ungeriana valves.   Scale bar: 10 micrometres (= 1/100th of a millimetre). 

What do we know about the ecology of Ulnaria ungeriana?   Our survey of Cypriot streams a few years ago yielded 11 records, forming up to four percent of all diatoms in the sample.  This means it is both less widespread and less dominant in samples than some other Ulnaria species.   It was often found along with other Ulnaria species, in particular U. mondii and, though generally not associated with reference sites (one out of the 11 records), it was mostly found in relatively clean conditions.   It was also associated with sites with high conductivity, which corresponds with the limestone geology that we saw in the Avgás Gorge.   On the whole, these environmental preferences are similar to those of other Ulnaria species from Cyprus that we’ve studied (see reference in earlier post).

The last question is perhaps the hardest to answer.  What benefit does the chain-forming habit confer upon Ulnaria ungeriana?   Ulnaria often forms tufts of upright cells sharing a common pad of mucilage at the base, and it is often (but not exclusively) found as an epiphyte on other plants.   We can’t rule out the possibility that the Ulnaria ungeriana chains are not also attached at one end, but it is also possible that the chain-forming habit means that they are easily entangled with the Chara and filamentous green algae that I described in the earlier post.   Both mucilage pads and entangled chains fulfil the same role of keeping the alga in the same spot in the stream, particularly where there are other plants and filamentous algae to offer extra protection from the current.

There is some speculation in the final couple of sentences but that’s never a bad thing for an ecologist.  If nothing else, it provides me with a reason to return one day …

Ecological preferences of Ulnaria ungeriana at running water sites in Cyprus.  a. pH; b. conductivity; c. total nitrogen (TN) and d. total phosphorus (TP).  Arrows indicate the mean value for each variable, weighted by the relative abundance of Ulnaria ungeriana in the sample.


Krammer, K. & Lange-Bertalot, H. (1991).   Süsswasserflora von Mitteleuropa 2 Bacillariophyceae, 3 teil: Centrales, Fragilariaceae, Eunotiaceae.   Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg, Berlin.

Lange-Bertalot, H. & Ulrich, S. (2014).  Contributions to the taxonomy of needle-shaped Fragilaria and Ulnaria species.   Lauterbornia 78: 1-73.

Eutrophic or euphytic?

A paper has just been published that should be required reading for anyone interested in the management of nutrients in in ecology.   It is a follow-up of a 2006 paper with the catchy title “How green is my river” that set out to provide a conceptual framework for how rivers responded to enrichment by nutrients.   That original paper contained several good ideas but, crucially, not all of them were underpinned by evidence.  A decade on, several of the predictions and statements made in that original paper have been tested, and the time has come to re-examine and modify that original conceptual model.

My reaction to the 2006 paper was that it was very interesting but not fully reflective of the rivers in my part of Britain, whose rougher topography produced quite different responses to nutrient enrichment than that proposed in their original model.   That criticism has been addressed in the revised version, which places greater emphasis on the physical habitat template, which means that it is more broadly applicable than the original version.   But that, in turn, got me wondering about the continued relevance of a term such as “eutrophication” to rivers.

People have been using the term “eutrophic” to describe lakes with high concentrations of nutrients since early in the 20th century.   As the century progressed, evidence of a causal relationship between inorganic nutrients and algal biomass, and the consequences for other components of lake ecosystems grew.   With this foundation, it has then become possible to predict the benefits of reducing nutrients and there are plenty of case studies, particularly from deep lakes, that demonstrate real improvements as nutrient concentrations have declined.

Attempts to apply the same rationale to rivers have, however, met with far less success.   Legislation to reduce nutrients in rivers has been in force in Europe since 1991 (the Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive, followed by the Water Framework Directive) and whilst this has led to reductions in concentrations of phosphorus in rivers (see  “The state of things, part 2”), there has, in most cases, not been a corresponding improvement in ecology.   There are a number of reasons for this but, at the heart, there was a failure to understand that the tight coupling between nutrients and biology that was the case in deep lakes did not also occur in running waters.   What was needed was recognition of fundamental differences between lakes and rivers, and “How green is my river?” and, now, this new paper have both contributed to this.

However, one consequence of recognising the importance of the physical habitat template alongside nutrients is to challenge the relevance of the term “eutrophic” when describing rivers.   “Eutrophic” literally means “well-nourished” so is appropriate in situations where high nutrients cause high plant or algal biomass.   This high biomass (strictly speaking, the primary production arising from this biomass) then creates problems for the rest of the ecosystem (night-time anoxia caused by plants consuming oxygen being a good example).   If high biomass can arise due to, let’s say, removal of bankside shade or alteration to the flow regime, perhaps (but not always) in combination with nutrients, then perhaps we need a term that does not imply a naïve cause-effect relationship with a single pressure?

My suggestion is to shift the focus from nutrients to plant growth by using the term “euphytic” (“too many plants”) as this would shift the emphasis from simply driving down nutrient concentrations (expensive and not always successful) towards reducing secondary effects.  It is possible that strategies such as planting more bankside trees, for example, or altering the flow regime or channel morphology (see “An embarrassment of riches …”) may be just as beneficial, in some cases, as reducing nutrient concentrations.   That said, we also have to bear in mind that nutrients may have an effect well downstream, so focus on amelioration of effects within a particular stream segment will never be a complete solution.

I should emphasise that a lot of work has been done in recent years to understand the concentrations of nutrients that should be expected in undisturbed conditions, and also to understand the nutrient concentrations that lead to changes in community structure in both macrophytes and algae.   These show that many rivers around Europe do have elevated concentrations of nutrients and I am not trying to side-step these issues.  I do, however, think it is important that regulators can prioritise those rivers in greatest need of remediation and, in most cases, they do this without considering the risk of secondary effects.

It is, largely, a matter of semantics.   I have been involved in many conversations over the past couple of decades about how to improve the state of our rivers.  Many of those have centred on the importance of reducing nutrient concentrations (which would be, indisputably, a major step towards healthier rivers).  But there is more to it than that.  And Mattie O’Hare and colleagues are helping to open up some new vistas in this paper.

Note: the photograph at the top of this post shows the River Wear at Wolsingham.  This stretch of the river captures many of the challenges facing river ecologists: nutrient concentrations are relatively low and there is good bankside shade.  However, the flow of the river is highly altered due to impoundments upstream and a major water transfer scheme.  How do all these factors interact to create the often prolific algal growths that can be seen here, particularly in winter and spring?


Hilton, J., O’Hare, M., Bowes, M.J. & Jones, J.I. (2006).  How green is my river?  A new paradigm of eutrophication in rivers.   Science of the Total Environment 365: 66-83.

O’Hare, M.T., Baattrup-Pedersen, A., Baumgarte, I., Freeman, A., Gunn, I.D.M., Lázár, A.N., Wade, A.J. & Bowes, M.J. (2018).  Responses of aquatic plants to eutrophication in rivers: a revised conceptual model.   Frontiers in Plant Science.   9: 451

That’s funny …

The most exciting phrase to hear in science, the one that heralds new discoveries, is not “Eureka!” but “That’s funny”
Attributed to Issac Asimov

I have visited Croasdale Beck, in western Cumbria, twenty-eight times since 2015 and I thought I was beginning to understand it’s character (see “A tale of two diatoms” and “What a difference a storm makes”).   It is the unruly sibling of the River Ehen which, usually, offers a far less amenable environment for freshwater algae.  Last week, however, as we walked down the track towards the stream, we were confronted with the unexpected sight of a river bed that was bright green.  Our measurements, too, showed that not only was there a lot of algae in absolute terms, but there was far more here than we had measured in the River Ehen.  Usually, the situation is reversed, with the Ehen having more than Croasdale Beck.

Croasdale Beck at NY 087 170 looking upstream in April 2018.   The position of the gravel bar has shifted over the time that we have visited, with the wetted channel originally being at the right hand side, rather than being split into two.

It was hard to capture the extent of the algae growing on the river bed in a photograph, but the macroscopic image below captures the colour of the growths well, and you’ll have to use your imagination to scale this up to cover half of the stream bed.  Under the microscope, these growths turned out to be virtual monocultures of the green alga Draparnaldia glomerata.  This is common in clean rivers in spring time, and I often find it in the nearby River Ehen (see “The River Ehen in February”).  What my images do not show is the mucilage that surrounds the filaments.   In some cases, the growths can be almost jelly-like, so prolific is this mucilage.   One of the roles of this mucilage plays is to serve a matrix within which enzymes released by the fine hairs at the end of the filaments can act to release nutrients bound into tiny organic particles (see “A day out in Weardale …”).

Growths of Draparnaldia glomerata in Croasdale Beck (NY 087 170) in April 2018.  The upper image shows the filaments growing on submerged stones and the lower image shows the bushy side-branches growing from a central filament.  Scale bar: 100 micrometres (= 1/10th of a millimetre).

We also sample a site a couple of kilometres downstream on Croasdale Beck and, here again, the river bed was smothered in green growths.  I assumed that this, too, was Draparnaldia glomerata but, when I examined the filaments under the microscope, it turned out to be a different alga altogether: Ulothrix zonata (see “Bollihope Bhavacakra” and links therein).   There is little difference between the two sites that might explain this: the latter is slightly lower and is surrounded by rough pasture whilst the other is closer to the fells.   However, I have seen both Ulothrix zonata and Draparnaldia glomerata at several other sites in the vicinity, and a simplistic interpretation based on agricultural enrichment does not really work.

There were also a few obvious differences in the diatoms that I saw in the two samples.   In both cases, we sampled stones lacking green algae but, instead, having a thick brown biofilm.  Several taxa were common to both sites – Odontidium mesodon, for example (broadly confirming the hypothesis in “A tale of two diatoms …”) and Meridion circulare was conspicuous in both.   However, the lower site had many more cells of “Ulnaria ulna” than the upper site.   Again, there is no ready explanation but, at the same time, neither green algae or diatoms at either site suggests anything malign.

Filaments of Ulothrix zonata at Croasdale Beck (NY 072 161).   The upper filament is in a healthy vegetative state (although the cell walls are not as thickened as in many populations).  The lower filament is producing zoospores.   Scale bar: 25 micrometres (= 1/40th of a millimetre).

Diatoms in Croasdale Beck, April 2018.   a. upper site: note the abundance of Odontidium mesodon, plus cells of Gomphonema cf exilissimum, Achnanthidium minutissimum and Meridion circulare; b. lower site: note the presence of “Ulnaria ulna” as well as several of the taxa found at the upper site.   Scale bar: 25 micrometres (= 1/40th of a millimetre).  

So where does this take us?  I talked about the benefits of repeat visits to the same site in “A brief history of time wasting …” and I think that these data from Croasdale are making a similar point.  By necessity, most formal assessments of the state of ecology are based on very limited data, from which, at best, we get an estimate of the “average” condition of a water body over a period of time.  Repeat visits might lead to a more precise assessment of the “average” state but also give us a better idea of the whole range of conditions that might be encountered.  Here, I suspect, we chanced upon one of the extremes of the distribution of conditions.   Cold, wet weather in early spring delayed the growth of many plants – aquatic and terrestrial – as well as the invertebrates that graze them.   Then the period of warm, dry conditions that preceded our visit gave the algae an opportunity to thrive whilst their grazers are still playing “catch-up”.  I suspect that next time we visit Croasdale Beck will have its familiar appearance.   It is, nonetheless, sobering to think that this single visit could have formed fifty-percent of the evidence on which a formal assessment might have been made.


Cypriot delights …

I could not return from my visit to Cyprus without an algal sample and a fine opportunity presented itself early last week when we visited the Avgás Gorge, on the Akámas peninsula at the west coast of Cyprus, just north of Pathos.  This is a spectacular limestone ravine whose steep sides offered welcome relief from the Mediterranean sun.  At points, as in the photograph above, the ravine narrowed to just a few metres wide, reminiscent of the siq which guards the entrance to Petra except that instead of exquisite carvings we stumbled across a Russian team conducting a glamour shoot.

A small stream made its way down the gorge.  The presence of woody debris at intervals suggested a considerable head of water during the winter months but, at this time of year the water has reduced in power, tumbling across a series of boulders into stagnant pools, interspersed with short runs shaded either by the high cliffs or the vegetation that flourished away from the harsh glare of the sun.

In the sections where water was still running there were clumps of Chara tangled up with filamentous algae, with plenty of bubbles of oxygen as evidence that both were busily photosynthesising away.  The filamentous algae was a coarse unbranched filament that was clearly a relative of Cladophora but which did not match any of the genera or species that I had encountered before (see “Fieldwork at Flatford” for similar situation).   There were pebbles and cobbles between these clumps, their surfaces criss-crossed by the galleries of caseless caddis larvae – probably Psychomyiidae, according to Richard Chadd.

Chara growing in the stream at Avgás Gorge in western Cyprus, April 2018.

Cladophora or a relative growing in the stream at Avgás Gorge in western Cyprus, April 2018.  The scale bar is 50 micrometres (= 1/20th of a millimetre). 

There were a number of diatoms present too, the most abundant of which was a chain-forming Ulnaria.  Unfortunately, despite having just co-authored a paper on Ulnaria from Cyprus, I cannot name the species, as I saw no cells in valve view.  I will have to return to this subject once I have prepared a permanent slide from the sample that I brought back.   The chloroplasts in the illustration below are not in a very healthy state because the sample lived in a fridge for almost a week before I was able to get it under a microscope.  Had I looked at this sample 20 years ago, I would have assumed that I was looking at a species of Fragilaria, as most keys then stated categorically that Synedra (the former generic name) were solitary rather than chain-forming.  However, we now know that there are several Ulnaria species that form chains although most that I see in my regular haunts in the UK do not.   Our paper states that the species we describe form short chains although, as we worked from cleaned samples collected by other people, I now wonder if that was an artefact of the preparation process and whether these, too, formed longer chains in their living state.

A chain of Ulnaria from the stream at Avgás Gorge in western Cyprus, April 2018.  Scale bar: 20 micrometres (= 1/50th of a millimetre).

Though it is rare for me to stray into describing the invertebrate life of streams, the Psychomyiidae are actually an important part of the story here, as the larvae graze algae from the surface of the stones.  They create a silk tube and this, in turn, becomes covered with fine sediment to create the galleries that are visible in the picture.   We know that invertebrates can change the composition of the attached algae by grazing but I sometimes wonder if the caseless caddis larvae also change the composition by creating myriad patches of very fine sediment across the rock surface.   If you look closely you can also see a couple of Simuliidae (blackfly) larvae.  These attach themselves to the rock by a circle of hooks at their last abdominal segment (I think that is “bum” in entomological language) and then use fan-like structures around their mouths to filter tiny particles from the water.  However, I have also seen Simuliidae larvae bent double on rock surfaces in order to hoover up particulate matter and algae that live there.

That, I thought, was just about enough natural history for one day.   I put my toothbrush and bottle back into my rucksack and made my way back down until, turning the corner, I stumbled across the Russian glamour models.   I’ve often written about the similarities between freshwater ecosystems in different parts of Europe but you don’t often see a bikini – or less – in April in my cold, damp corner.

Galleries of Psychomyiidae larvae on the top of a limestone cobble from the stream at Avgás Gorge in western Cyprus, April 2018.


Cantonati, M., Lange-Bertalot, H., Kelly, M.G. & Angeli, N. (2018).  Taxonomic and ecological characterization of two Ulnaria species (Bacillariophyta) from streams in Cyprus.   Phytotaxa 346: 78-92.

Wallace, I. (2003).   The Beginner’s Guide to Caddis (order Trichoptera).  Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists’ Society 62: 15-26.