A week after I return from China, I was off on my travels again; this time to Vienna for a workshop between molecular ecology specialists and ECOSTAT, the committee of Member State representatives who oversee ecological aspects of Water Framework Directive implementation. As ever, I found some time to visit some art galleries around the meeting and, as Vienna has one of the most impressive collections of paintings by Pieter Brueghel, I could not resist spending some time in front of his “Tower of Babel”. A few years ago I cheerfully included this picture in a talk on EU ecological assessment methods, as we tried to make sense of the myriad national approaches. Three years after the Brexit vote, however, it seems to better reflect UK domestic politics where, ironically, language is one of the few things that all protagonists do have in common.
The River Danube seems to encapsulate the reasons why Europe needs collaborative thinking on the state of the environment. It is the second longest river in Europe, after the Volga, and flows through ten countries, with tributaries extending into nine more. Eight of the nine countries through which the river flows are members of the EU (the ninth, Serbia, is in the process of joining) so the river represents a case study, of sorts, on whether EU environmental policies actually work. This is not just an academic question: ecologists are generally in favour of integrated management of entire catchments whilst the EU operates on a principle of “subsidiarity”, which means that decision-making is devolved to the lowest competent authority (individual Member States in the case of the environment). Finding the right balance between these principles takes a lot of patient discussion and is one reason why EU decision-making can appear to be agonisingly slow.
Pieter Bruegel’s “Tower of Babel” in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna.
And there are more problems: the Water Framework Directive evaluates the sustainability of water bodies by their naturalness yet very large rivers such as the Danube have been very heavily modified by human use for centuries. The river has been broadened, deepened and impounded, and its banks have been straightened and strengthened in order to make it navigable, and there is a huge human population, with associated industry, living on its banks. The stretch of the Danube along which I walked on my last morning in Vienna was also lined with embankments to protect the surrounding land from flooding but these, at the same time, cut the river off from the ecological benefits of the floodplain.
What hope for a large river such as the Danube in the face of all these challenges? First of all, when dealing with rivers such as these we need to adjust our expectations, recognising that they are so central to the economic life of the regions through which they flow that there are limits to their capacity to ever resemble truly natural rivers. Once we have done this, we can start to unpick the challenges that can be addressed by individual Member States. In the case of water quality, in particular, the story for the Danube is encouraging and European environmental legislation has played its role in this process. By the time the Danube reaches the borders with Romania, for example, nutrient concentrations are low enough for many of the benthic algal-communities to meet criteria for “good ecological status”.
You can see this in the graph below, from a paper that we’ve published recently. The Romanian sites are largely clustered at the top left hand side of the graph, relative to data from other countries – indicating low phosphorus concentrations and good ecology (expressed as “ecological quality ratios”, EQRs). Thanks to an extensive exercise that took place a few years before I started grappling with the Romanian data, we already had a consensus view of the EQR boundaries for high and good status, and most of the Romanian data fits into the band representing “good status”. That’s encouraging and whilst these communities are just one element of a much more complex ecosystem, but it is a clear step in the right direction.
The relationship between dissolved phosphorus and ecological stataus of the phytobenthos (expressed as the Ecological Quality Ratio, EQR, based on the intercalibration common metric (which gives a harmonised view of status between Member States). Horizontal lines show the average position of “high” (blue) and “good” (green) status boundaries. RO = Romanian data; XGIG = data from other Member States. See Kelly et al. (2018) for more details.
Romania is, of course, a long way downstream from where I was standing in Vienna. Before the Danube gets there it has to cross Slovakia, Hungary and Serbia. The river also forms the boundary between Romania and Bulgaria for about 300 kilometres, so it is important that there is joined-up thinking between those responsible for water quality on the two opposite banks. That’s why the EU is so important for the environment on a pan-European scale. It is easy for those of us crammed onto our insignificant archipelago in the north-west corner of the continent to overlook this, but the Danube is really a great success stories for European environmental collaboration and, indeed, a reason for staying with this ambitious project into the future. Too late, I know, but it needs to be said.
Kelly, M.G., Chiriac, G., Soare-Minea, A., Hamchevici, C. & Birk, S. (2018). Defining ecological status of phytobenthos in very large rivers: a case study of practical implementation of the Water Framework Directive in Romania. Hydrobiologia 828: 353-367.
Sightseeing in Vienna: Stefansdom, the historic cathedral in the city centre and the Ferris wheel at the Prater amusement park, which played a starring role in Graham Greene’s The Third Man.